Curriculum Alignment:


P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

P12.4: In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

P12.5: Changes of state require a transfer of energy. Water has a very high specific heat, meaning it can absorb a large amount of energy while producing only small changes in temperature.

P12.6: An atom’s electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.

P12.7: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond. An important example is carbon atoms, which can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form, along with other kinds of atoms—hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur—a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.

P12.8: Atoms and molecules that compose matter are in constant motion (translational, rotational, or vibrational).

P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

P12.10: Electromagnetic waves are produced by changing the motion of charges or by changing magnetic fields. The energy of electromagnetic waves is transferred to matter in packets. The energy content of the packets is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

P12.11: Fission and fusion are reactions involving changes in the nuclei of atoms. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei and particles. Fusion involves joining of two relatively light nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure. Fusion is the process responsible for the energy of the sun and other stars.

P12.12: Heating increases the translational, rotational, and vibrational energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the translational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the vibrational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down and the solid melts.

P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth’s surface is increased when the object’s position is changed from one closer to Earth’s surface to one farther from Earth’s surface.

P12.14: Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

P12.15: Nuclear reactions—fission and fusion—convert very small amounts of matter into appreciable amounts of energy.

P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

P12.18: Objects undergo different kinds of motion—translational, rotational, and vibrational.

P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

P12.20: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

P12.21: Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted by the second object back on the first object. In closed systems, momentum is the quantity of motion that is conserved. Conservation of momentum can be used to help validate the relationship a=Fnet/m.

P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.