LegacyProcessors.Abstract History

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Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year,[10] the vast majority of transistors now produced are in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC, microchips or simply chips), along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components, to produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2009, can use as many as 2.3 billion transistors (MOSFETs).[11] "About 60 million transistors were built this year [2002] ... for [each] man, woman, and child on Earth."[12]
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Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year, the vast majority of transistors now produced are in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC, microchips or simply chips), along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components, to produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2009, can use as many as 2.3 billion transistors (MOSFETs). "About 60 million transistors were built this year [2002] ... for [each] man, woman, and child on Earth."
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[edit] Usage
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Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed the first patent for a transistor in Canada in 1925, describing a device similar to a Field Effect Transistor or "FET". However, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices, nor did his patent cite any examples of devices actually constructed. In 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a similar device.

From 1942 Herbert Mataré experimented with so-called Duodiodes while working on a detector for a Doppler RADAR system. The duodiodes built by him had two separate but very close metal contacts on the semiconductor substrate. He discovered effects that could not be explained by two independently operating diodes and thus formed the basic idea for the later point contact transistor.

In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in the United States observed that when electrical contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, the output power was larger than the input. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley saw the potential in this, and over the next few months worked to greatly expand the knowledge of semiconductors. The term transistor was coined by John R. Pierce. According to physicist/historian Robert Arns, legal papers from the Bell Labs patent show that William Shockley and Gerald Pearson had built operational versions from Lilienfeld's patents, yet they never referenced this work in any of their later research papers or historical articles.

The name 'transistor' is a portmanteau of the term 'transfer resistor'.

The first silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in 1954. This was the work of Gordon Teal, an expert in growing crystals of high purity, who had previously worked at Bell Labs. The first MOS transistor actually built was by Kahng and Atalla at Bell Labs in 1960.

While the transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics, and is considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century, it's evolution covers substantial history. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low per-transistor costs.

Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year,[10] the vast majority of transistors now produced are in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC, microchips or simply chips), along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components, to produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2009, can use as many as 2.3 billion transistors (MOSFETs).[11] "About 60 million transistors were built this year [2002] ... for [each] man, woman, and child on Earth."[12]

The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device. Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical control function.

[edit] Usage
The bipolar junction transistor, or BJT, was the most commonly used transistor in the 1960s and 70s. Even after MOSFETs became widely available, the BJT remained the transistor of choice for many analog circuits such as simple amplifiers because of their greater linearity and ease of manufacture. Desirable properties of MOSFETs, such as their utility in low-power devices, usually in the CMOS configuration, allowed them to capture nearly all market share for digital circuits; more recently MOSFETs have captured most analog and power applications as well, including modern clocked analog circuits, voltage regulators, amplifiers, power transmitters, motor drivers, etc.


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